Paris Agreement Country Contributions

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change, adopted by 196 parties at COP21 in Paris, France in 2015. The agreement aims to limit global warming to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.

One of the key features of the Paris Agreement is the commitment of each country to submit a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) that outlines its climate action plan. The NDCs are designed to be nationally determined, meaning that each country decides for itself what actions it will take to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.

As of 2021, 191 countries have submitted their NDCs. The contributions vary widely in terms of ambition and scope, reflecting different national circumstances and capacities. The largest emitters, such as the United States, China, and India, have submitted NDCs that pledge significant emissions reductions over the next decade.

The United States, for example, has pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by between 26% and 28% below 2005 levels by 2025. This target was originally set by the Obama administration and was reaffirmed by President Biden upon taking office. The US has also committed to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.

China, the world`s largest emitter, has pledged to achieve peak emissions before 2030 and to reach carbon neutrality by 2060. This is a significant commitment given the country`s rapidly growing economy and large population.

India, another major emitter, has pledged to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% below 2005 levels by 2030 and to achieve 40% of its energy from non-fossil fuel sources by the same year.

Other countries, particularly small island states and developing countries, have submitted NDCs that focus more on adaptation and resilience-building measures. For example, the Pacific island nation of Tuvalu has pledged to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2025, while Rwanda has committed to restoring 2 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.

Overall, the Paris Agreement contributions represent a significant step forward in global efforts to address climate change. However, many experts believe that the current NDCs fall short of what is needed to limit global warming to 2°C or 1.5°C. This underscores the need for continued international cooperation and ambition to ensure that the goals of the Paris Agreement are met.